Definitions

Forms of Governments by -ISMs

Capitalism : 1. An economic system characterized by a free competitive market with private and corporate ownership of production and distribution means, in which development s proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits.  2. A political or social system regarded as being based on this.

Collectivism : 1. The principle or system of ownership and control of the means of production and distribution by the people collectively.
a. a political or economic theory advocating collective control especially over production and distribution.  b. a system marked by such control.  c. emphasis on collective rather than individual action or identity.

Communism : 1. A social system characterized by the absence of classes and by common ownership of the means of production and substance.  2a. A political, economic, and social doctrine aiming at the establishment of such a society.  b. The Marxist-Leninist doctrine of revolutionary struggle toward this goal, the political movement representing it, or, loosely, socialism as practiced in countries ruled by communist parties.

a. A doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the U.S.S.R..  b. A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production.  c. A final stage of society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably.

 

Egalitarianism :  1. Advocating for the doctrine of equal political, economic, and legal rights for all citizens.

a. A belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic affairs.  b. A social philosophy advocating the removal of inequalities among people.

 

Fascism : 1. A philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism.  2. The governmental system of Italy under Benito Mussolini from 1922 to 1943.  [Italian fascio: bundle, group, assemblage]

a.  A political philosophy, movement, or regime (such as that of the Fascisti) that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

b. A tendency toward or actual exercise of strong autocratic or dictatorial control.

Imperialism : 1. The policy of expanding a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition of by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.  2. The system, policies, or practices of an imperial government.  3. The imposing of its will on others by a country or powerful organization, in social, cultural, or other matters.  (Used derogatorily.)

Marxism : The political and economic ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; specifically, a system of thought in which the concept of class struggle plays a primary role both in analyzing Western society in general and in understanding is allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist society and thence to Communism.

Marxist : One who believes in or follows the ideas of Marx and Engels; especially a militant Communist.

Nazi : 1.  A member of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power in 1933 under Adolph Hitler.  2. An adherent or advocate of policies characteristic of this party; a fascist.

a.  The body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior, and supremacy of the führer.

Nazism : The ideology and practice of the Nazis; especially, the policy of state control of the economy, racist nationalism, and national expansion.  Also called “National Socialism.”

Socialism : 1. A social system I which the means of producing and distributing goods are owned collectively and pollical power is exercised by the whole community.  2.  The theory of practice of those who support such a social system.  3. In Marxist-Leninist theory, the abuilding, under the dictatorship of the proletariat, of the material base for communism, a transitional stage between capitalism and communism

a: any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods.  a1: a system of society or group living in which there is no private property.  b: a system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state.  c: a stage of society in Marxist theory transitional between capitalism and communism and distinguished by unequal distribution of goods and pay according to work done.

Socialist : n 1. And advocate of socialism.  adj 2. Of, belonging to or constituting a socialist party.

Totalitarianism :  Of or designating a government or political regime whose main characteristic is considered to be the imposition of monolithic unity in every sphere of the life of its subjects, upheld by authoritarian means

a. Centralized control by an autocratic authority.  b. The political concept that the citizen should be totally subject to an absolute state authority.

Religious Terms

Agnosticism : 1. The philosophical view that is impossible to know whether or not God exists; doubt as to the existence of knowability of God.
a. The view that any ultimate reality (such as a deity) is unknown and probably unknowable.  b. A philosophical or religious position characterized by uncertainty about the existence of a god or any gods.

Atheism : 1.  Disbelief in or denial of the existence of God.  2. Godlessness; wickedness.

Blasphemy : 1a. Any contemptuous or profane act, utterance, or writing concerning God, or something considered sacred.  1b. the act of claiming oneself the attributes and rights of God.  2. An irreverent or impious act, attribute, or utterance in regard to something considered inviolable or sacrosanct.

Cult : 1. A system or community of religious worship and ritual, especially one focusing upon a single deity or spirit.  2a. Obsessive devotion or veneration for a person, principle, or ideal.  2b. The object of such devotion.  3a. An exclusive group of persons sharing and esoteric interest.  3b. The object of such an interest.  4. Any fashion or fad.  Often used derogatorily.

a1. Great devotion to a person, idea, object, movement, or work (such as a film or book) criticizing how the media promotes the cult of celebrity especially; such devotion regarded as a literary or intellectual fad.  b. The object of such devotion.  c. A usually small group of people characterized by such devotion.

Deism :  1. The belief that the truth of the existence of God can be discovered only by the individual through the evidence of reason and nature without resort to any particular church or to revelation.

Jihad : 1. A Muslim holy war against infidels.  2. A crusade.
(Infidel  1. One who has no religious beliefs.  2. One who is an unbeliever with respect to a particular religion, especially Christianity or Islam.)

a. A holy war waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty.

Monotheism : The doctrine or belief that there is only one God.

Polytheism : The worship of or belief in more than one god.

Religion : 1. The expression of man’s belief in and reverence for superhuman power or powers regarded as creating or governing the universe.  2. Any personal or institutionalized system of beliefs or practices embodying this belief or reverence.  3. A cause, principle, or activity pursued with zeal or conscientious devotions.

Secularism : 1. Religious skepticism or indifference.  2. The view that religious considerations should be excluded from civil affairs or public education.

Political Parties or Persuasions

Bourgeoisie : 1.  The middle classes.  2. In Marxist theory, the social group opposed to the proletariat in the class struggle; the capitalist class.
a. a class or group of people with social behavior and political views held to be influenced by private-property interest : a social order dominated by capitalists or bourgeois.

Conservative : 1. Tending to favor the preservation of the existing order; averse to and distrustful of change.

Democrat : An advocate of democracy.

Democratic Party : One of the two major political parties in the United States.

Democratic Socialism : Democratic socialism is defined as having a socialist economy in which the means of production are socially and collectively owned or controlled, alongside a democratic political system of government.

Elitist : 1a. The best, most skilled, or most privileged members of a given social group.  1b. A narrow and powerful clique.

Faction : 1. A group of persons forming a cohesive, usually contentious minority within a larger group.  2. Internal dissension; conflict within an organization or nation.

GOP (Grand Old Party) : Often referred to as the Republican Party.

Incumbent : Holding a specific office.

Independent : 1. Politically autonomous; self-governing.  2a. Free from influence, guidance, or control of another or others.  2b. Self-reliant; not seeking or relying on help or guidance from others.  3. Not dependent on or affiliated with a larger or controlling group, system, or the like; separate.  4. Financially self-sufficient; self-supporting.

Left : 1. The individuals and groups pursuing generally egalitarian political goals by reformist or revolutionary means, as opposed to broadly conservative, established, or reactionary interests.  2. A stance of favoring such goals, considered as part of a roughly measurable political continuum.

Liberal : 1. Having, expressing, or following social or political views or policies that favor nonrevolutionary progress and reform.  2. Of, or pertaining to, or designating a wide cultural education, as opposed to a technical or specialized one.   3. Tolerant of the ideas or behavior of others.

a. associated with ideals of individual especially economic freedom, greater individual participation in government, and constitutional, political, and administrative reforms designed to secure these objectives.1

Libertarian : 1. One who believes in freedom, especially individual freedom, of action and thought.

Party : A permanent political group organized to promote and support its principles and candidates of public office.

Party Politics : 1. Politics conducted merely for the sake of one’s political party rather than for greater cause, such as the good of the country.

Political : 1. Of or pertaining to the study, structure, or affairs of government or the state, especially in regard to civil policymaking rather than military, legal, or administrative matters.   2. Having a definite or organized policy or structure of government.   3. Of or pertaining to policies or parties within a state.  4. Of or pertaining to the citizens of a state.   5. Of or pertaining to the security of a government or state.

Progressive : 1. Proceeding in steps; continuing by steadily by increments.  2. Of, designating, pertaining to, or influenced by a theory of education characterized by emphasis on the individual needs and capacities of each child and informality of curriculum.

Proletariat : 1a. The class of industrial wage earners who, possessing neither capital nor means of production, must earn their living from their labor power.  1b. The poorest class of working people

RINO : Republican In Name Only

Regime : 1a. A system of management or government.  1b. a government holding power; administration.  2. A social system or power.

Republican : A person who favors or supports a republican form of government.

Republican Party : One of the two major political parties in the United States, organized in 1854 to oppose slavery.

Tory : 1. An American who during the American Revolution favored the English side (Loyalist).  2.  A conservative or right-wing person.

a. often not capitalized: an extreme conservative especially in political and economic principles.

Whig : A supporter of the war against England during the American Revolution (Patriot).

Political Actions

Coup : A brilliantly executed stratagem; a masterstroke.

Coup d’état : A sudden overthrowing of government and seizure of power by others a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics especially the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group.

Insurrection : An act or instance of open revolt against civil authority or a constituted government.

Lobby : 1. To seek to influence legislators in favor of some special interest.  2 To seek to influence legislators to pass [legislation].

Petition : 1. A written document bearing many signatures, requesting action on a particular issue from those in authority.  2. A solemn supplication or request to a superior authority; an entreaty.

Rebellion : 1. An uprising or organized opposition intended to change or overthrows and existing government or ruling or authority.  2. An act or show of defiance toward any authority or established convention.

War : 1a. The state of open, armed, often prolonged conflict carried on between nations, states, parties.  1b. The period of such conflict.  2a. A condition of active antagonism or contention.  2b. A concerted effort of campaign to combat or put an end to something.  3. The techniques or procedures of war; military science or strategy.
(Declaration of war.  1. To state formally the intent to carry on hostilities against.  2. To state one’s intent to suppress or eradicate.)

US Government Terms

(Democratic) Republic : 1. a country where some decisions (often local) are made by direct democratic processes, while others (often federal) are made by democratically elected representatives.

Democracy : 1. Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives.  2. A social condition of equality and respect for the individual with the community.  3. The people considered as a source of political authority.

Federal (Gov.) : The form of national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution.

Local (Gov.) : 1. Pertaining to, existing in, of interest to, peculiar to, or serving a certain locality.  2. Not broad or general; confined.

Republic : 1. Any political order that is not a monarchy.  2. A constitutional form of government, especially a democratic and representative one, in which the lead of state is not a monarch, and supreme power is vested in the people or their elected representatives.  3. Any group of people working freely and equally for the same cause.

State (Gov.) : 1. Any of the more or less internally autonomous territorial and political units composing a federation under a sovereign government.

Branches of Government

Opinion : A formal statement by a judge or a jury of the legal reason and principles for the conclusion of the court.

Chief Justice : The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court.  The Chief Justice's personal ruling is equal in weight to the rulings of any associate judges on the court.

Congress : The bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government.

Decision : 1. The passing of judgment on an issue under consideration.  2. The act of reaching a conclusion or making up one’s mind.  3. A conclusion or judgement reached or pronounced; a verdict.

Executive Branch : the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary.

House of Representatives : The lower house of a bicameral legislature.  Members of a House of Representatives are typically apportioned according to population rather than geography.

Judicial Branch : The system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and disagreements and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases.

Justices : Judges

Legislative Branch : The branch of government which is concerned with the making of laws.

President : The chief executive of a republic, especially of the United States.

Recuse : To challenge or object to (a judge or juror) on such grounds as his prejudices or lack of qualification.

Representatives : 1.  A person or thing serving as an example of type for others of the same classification.  2a. One qualified to serve as an authorized official delegate or agent b. One present in the name of another person or body.  3a. a member of a governmental boy, usually legislative, chosen by popular vote.  B. In the United States, a member of the Us. House of Representatives.

Ruling : An authoritative or official decision.

Senate : 1. An assembly or council of citizens having the highest deliberative and legislative functions in a government;  a.  The upper house of Congress in the United States, to which two members are elected from each state.

Senators : 1. A member of a senate

Speaker of the House : The presiding officer of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Supreme Court : The highest federal court in the United States, consisting of nine justices and having jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation.

Vice President : The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U.S. federal government, after the president of the United States, and ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The vice president is also an officer in the legislative branch, as the president of the Senate.
 

Who’s Who in the Country

Alien : A foreign resident of a country who has not been naturalized.

Army : 1. A large body of men organized and trained for warfare on land.  2. The entire military land forces of a country.  3. Any large group of people organized for a specific cause.

Citizen : A person owing loyalty to and entitled by birth or naturalization to the protection of given nation.

Illegal (Alien) : 1. Prohibited by law.  2. Prohibited by official rules.

Immigrant : One who enters a county to settle permanently.

Legal / Resident : 1. In conformity with or permitted by law.  2. Recognized or enforced by law rather than equity.

Militia : 1a. A citizen army as distinct from a body of professional soldiers.   b. The armed citizenry as distinct from the regular army.

National Guard : Military reserves organized by each of the 50 U.S. states, territories, D.C. and administered by the National Guard Bureau.

Naturalized Citizen : To grant full citizenship to (one of foreign birth)

Patriot : A person who loves, supports, and defends his country.

Refugee : A person who flees to find refuge; especially, one who escapes from invasion, oppression, or persecution, often to another country.

Traitor : A person who betrays his country, cause or trust; especially one who has committed treason.

Treason : 1. Violation of allegiance toward one’s sovereign country, especially the betrayal of one’s own country by waging war against it or by consciously and purposely acting to aid its enemies.  2. A betrayal of trust or confidence; treachery.

Émigré : An emigrant, especially one who has fled his country during a political upheaval.

Strategies

Cancel : To annul, revoke, invalidate.

Debate : 1. To deliberate; consider.  2. To engage in argument; discuss opposing points.  3. To engage in formal discussion or argument.

Deflect : To cause to swerve or turn aside.

Divide & Conquer : To use a combination of political, military, and economic strategies that aim to gain and maintain power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into chunks that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.

Imperialism : 1. The policy of expanding a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition of by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.  2. The system, policies, or practices of an imperial government.  3. The imposing of its will on others by a country or powerful organization, in social, cultural, or other matters.  (Used derogatorily.)

Social Justice Warrior : (SJW).  A person who zealously promotes causes he or she believes to be matters of social justice, often for personal validation.

War : (Class / Gender / Income / Racial), 1a. The state of open, armed, often prolonged conflict carried on between nations, states, parties.  b. The period of such conflict.  2a. A condition of active antagonism or contention.  b. A concerted effort of campaign to combat or put an end to something.  3. The techniques or procedures of war; military science or strategy.
(Declaration of war.  1. To state formally the intent to carry on hostilities against.  2. To state one’s intent to suppress or eradicate.)

Words twisted to mean something else or cause confusion

Ideal : 1. A conception of something in its absolute perfection.  2. One regarded as a standard of model of perfection.  3. The ultimate object of endeavor; a goal.

Immoral : 1. Contrary to the established morality, especially in sexual matters.  2. Unethical or unfair.  3. Tending to corrupt.

Integrity : 1. Strict adherence to a code of moral values, artistic principles, or other standards; complete sincerity or honesty.  The state of being unimpaired; soundness.

Intellect : The ability to learn and reason as distinguished from the ability to feel or will; the capacity for knowledge and understanding.
 

Words : 1a. Sounds or a combination of sounds that symbolizes and communicate a meaning.  b. Written or printed representation of this.  2. Something that is said.  3. Hostile or angry remarks made back and forth; a quarrel.

Abomination : 1. Something or someone that causes great revulsion or abhorrence.  2. An intense dislike or lathing for someone or something.

Alliance : 1a. A formal pact or union joining nations or partied in a common cause.  b. The nations or parties so conjoined.

Aptitude : 1. A natural or acquired talent, skill, or ability.  2. Quickness in learning and understanding; intelligence.

Brave : Possessing or displaying courage; valiant.

Civics : The study of the rights and duties of a citizen.

Civil Society : The sense of 1) the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or 2) individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government.

Classical Education : Classical Education is a systematic, rigorous program that develops a student’s ability to think critically and deeply about a subject. It is rooted in the pursuit of objective truth and the process of connecting varying types of information to come to a higher understanding.

Compact : An agreement or covenant.
 

Competition : 1. The action of competing with another or others for profit, prize, position, or the necessities of life; rivalry. 2. A contest, match, or other trial of skill or ability.

Confidential : 1. Done or communicated in confidence; told in secret.  2. Entrusted with the confidence of another.

Conspiracy : 1. An agreement to perform together an illegal, treacherous, or evil act.  2. A combining or acting together, as if by evil design.

Conspiracy Theory : 1. A hypothesis alleging that the members of a coordinated group are, and/or were, secretly working together to commit illegal or wrongful actions including attempting to hide the existence of the group and its activities. In notable cases the hypothesis contradicts the mainstream explanation for historical or current events.  2. (dismissive, derogatory) Hypothetical speculation that is commonly considered untrue or outlandish.  Note: Some consider it inappropriate to use the phrase "conspiracy theory" in an attempt to dismissively discredit hypothetical speculation in any form.

Corrupt : 1. Morally debased and perverted; depraved.  2. Marked by or guilty of veniality and dishonesty, especially bribery.  3. Decaying; putrid.  4. Infected; contaminated unclean.

Courage : The state of quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face danger and overcome fear.

Coward : One who lacks courage in the face of danger, pain, or an unpleasant situation; an ignobly frightened or timid person.

Critical Thinking : 1. The analysis of facts to form a judgment.

Deceit : 1.  An act of deceiving; misrepresenting.  2. A stratagem; a trick; a wile.  3. A tendency to deceive or habit of deceiving; falseness; deceitfulness.

Decent : 1. Honest and respectable; conforming to recognized standards of morality and propriety.  2. Proper; fitting.  3. Free from indelicacy; modest.

Decree : 1. An authoritative order having the force of law.  2.The judgement of a court of equity, admiralty, probate of divorce.

Delayed Gratification : The resistance to the temptation of an immediate pleasure in the hope of obtaining a valuable and long-lasting reward in the long-term.

Desire : To wish or long for; want; crave.

Diligent : 1. Industrious and hard working.  2. Characterized by persevering, painstaking effort.

Disinformation : 1. A subset of propaganda and is false information that is spread deliberately to deceive.

Domestic Violence : Violence committed in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

Edict : 1. An official decree or proclamation issued by an authority.  2. A formal command; decree.

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